my teacher : Mahboobeh shadmani
Anatomy of the pancreas:  The pancreas is an elongated, tapered organ located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The right side of the organ (called the head) is the widest part of the organ and lies in the curve of the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine). The tapered left side extends slightly upward (called the body of the pancreas) and ends near the spleen (called the tail).

+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 20:8 PM  By K.safari  | 

The esophagus or gullet is a muscular canal, about 23 to 25 cm. long, extending from the pharynx to the stomach. It begins in the neck at the lower border of the cricoid cartilage, opposite the sixth cervical vertebra, descends along the front of the vertebral column, through the superior and posterior mediastina, passes through the diaphragm, and, entering the abdomen, ends at the cardiac orifice of the stomach, opposite the eleventh thoracic vertebra. The general direction of the esophagus is vertical; but it presents two slight curves in its course
+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 19:57 PM  By K.safari  | 


The main function of the stomach is to process and transport food. After feeding, the contractile activity of the stomach helps to mix, grind and eventually evacuate small portions of chyme into the small bowel, while the rest of the chyme is mixed and ground.  Anatomically, the stomach can be divided into three major regions: fundus (the most proximal), corpus and antrum . Histologically, the fundus and corpus are hardly separable. In the antral area, the density of the smooth muscle cells increases

+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 19:47 PM  By K.safari  | 

The liver is a large, meaty organ that sits on the right side of the belly. Weighing about 3 pounds, the liver is reddish-brown in color and feels rubbery to the touch. Normally you can't feel the liver, because it's protected by the rib cage.  The liver has two large sections, called the right and the left lobes. The gallbladder sits under the liver, along with parts of the pancreas and intestines. The liver and these organs work together to digest, absorb, and process food.  The liver's main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.

+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 19:31 PM  By K.safari  | 

Salivary glands

The glands are found in and around your mouth and throat. We call the major salivary glands the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.  They all secrete saliva into your mouth, the parotid through tubes that drain saliva, called salivary ducts, near your upper teeth, submandibular under your tongue, and the sublingual through many ducts in the floor of your mouth.  Besides these glands, there are many tiny glands called minor salivary glands located in your lips, inner cheek area (buccal mucosa), and extensively in other linings of your mouth and throat. Salivary glands produce the saliva used to moisten your mouth, initiate digestion, and help protect your teeth from decay.  As a good health measure, it is important to drink lots of liquids daily. Dehydration is a risk factor for salivary gland disease.

+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 19:25 PM  By K.safari  | 


mouth is the first part of the digestive system the foods are pass mouth and then go to another part of the body the mouth can fragment the foods digestive process begin to start
the mouth closure by : lips , species , tongue and palate The space between palate and tongue is oral Cavity

some add

The cavity of the mouth is placed at the commencement of the digestive tube it is a nearly oval-shaped cavity which consists of two parts: an outer, smaller portion, the vestibule, and an inner, larger part, the mouth cavity proper.   The Vestibule (vestibulum oris) is a slit-like space, bounded externally by the lips and cheeks; internally by the gums and teeth. It communicates with the surface of the body by the rima or orifice of the mouth. Above and below, it is limited by the reflection of the mucous membrane from the lips and cheeks to the gum covering the upper and lower alveolar arch respectively. It receives the secretion from the parotid salivary glands, and communicates, when the jaws are closed, with the mouth cavity proper by an aperture on either side behind the wisdom teeth, and by narrow clefts between opposing teeth.   The Mouth Cavity Proper (cavum oris proprium) is bounded laterally and in front by the alveolar arches with their contained teeth; behind, it communicates with the pharynx by a constricted aperture termed the isthmus faucium. It is roofed in by the hard and soft palates, while the greater part of the floor is formed by the tongue, the remainder by the reflection of the mucous membrane from the sides and under surface of the tongue to the gum lining the inner aspect of the mandible. It receives the secretion from the submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands.   Structure.—The mucous membrane lining the mouth is continuous with the integument at the free margin of the lips, and with the mucous lining of the pharynx behind; it is of a rosepink tinge during life, and very thick where it overlies the hard parts bounding the cavity. It is covered by stratified squamous epithelium.   The Lips (labia oris), the two fleshy folds which surround the rima or orifice of the mouth, are formed externally of integument and internally of mucous membrane, between which are found the Orbicularis oris muscle, the labial vessels, some nerves, areolar tissue, and fat, and numerous small labial glands. The inner surface of each lip is connected in the middle line to the corresponding gum by a fold of mucous membrane, the frenulum—the upper being the large.
+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 19:22 PM  By K.safari  | 

Auxiliary organs
At first I say the parts of the digestive system & now I just want to add some another organ that helps them the auxiliary organs of the digestive system
Salivary glands



the liver and gallbladder get together like it



and they again get together in this form :

+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 19:2 PM  By K.safari  | 

The digestive system formed by alimen tary Canal that begin of mouth from anus
also this system have several organ that they release some discharge to the digestive tract
this system formed by




Small intestine


they get together in this form:

+ In  Tue 23 Apr 2013Time 18:36 PM  By K.safari  | 

hello :)
our next unit is about urinary tract
from previous post we learned that
two kidneys { click } work together to perform many vital functions, people can live a normal, healthy life with just one kidney. in fact, some people are born with just one of these bean-shaped organs. if one kidney is removed, the remaining one will enlarge within a few months to take over the role of filtering blood on its own

so now i want to introduce the smallest things that work in kidneys
nephron is the smallest thing that work in urinary tract
do you want to see it ? okay click please
kidney nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys. there are normally approx. one million (0.8 - 1.5 million) kidney nephrons in each of the two kidneys in the body

oh!I have a wonderful photo but i don't know who want to eat it ???? i'll never eat {click} thnx

+ In  Mon 8 Apr 2013Time 17:44 PM  By K.safari  | 

although the two kidneys work together to perform many vital functions, people can live a normal, healthy life with just one kidney. in fact, some people are born with just one of these bean-shaped organs. if one kidney is removed, the remaining one will enlarge within a few months to take over the role of filtering blood on its own

take a quiz click here

+ In  Wed 6 Mar 2013Time 23:54 PM  By K.safari  | 

 The respiratory system is situated in the thorax, and is responsible for gaseous exchange between the circulatory system and the outside world. Air is taken in via the upper airways (the nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx) through the lower airways (trachea, primary bronchi and bronchial tree) and into the small bronchioles and alveoli within the lung tissue. Move the pointer over the coloured regions of the diagram; the names will appear at the bottom of the screen)  The lungs are divided into lobes; The left lung is composed of the upper lobe, the lower lobe and the lingula (a small remnant next to the apex of the heart), the right lung is composed of the upper, the middle and the lower lobes


The airways are pipes that carry oxygen-rich air to your lungs. They also carry carbon dioxide, a waste gas, out of your lungs. The airways include your:

  • Nose and linked air passages (called nasal cavities)
  • Mouth
  • Larynx (LAR-ingks), or voice box
  • Trachea (TRA-ke-ah), or windpipe
  • Tubes called bronchial tubes or bronchi, and their branches

What are the functions of the lungs?
  The lungs take in oxygen, which the body's cells need to live and carry out their normal functions. The lungs also get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product of the cells.  The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped organs made up of spongy, pinkish-gray tissue. They take up most of the space in the chest, or the thorax (the part of the body between the base of the neck and diaphragm).  The lungs are enveloped in a membrane called the pleura.  The lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum, an area that contains the following

  • Heart and its large vessels
  • Tachea (windpipe)
  • Esophagus
  • Thymus
  • Lymph nodes

+ In  Wed 6 Mar 2013Time 23:33 PM  By K.safari  | 

Your pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland at the base of your brain. The pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body.

Endocrine System formed by : pituitary gland , thyroid glan , parathyroid glands , adrenal glands ,pancreas , pineal gland , thymus gland , reproductive glands , digestive glands and


'It meanes atrial natriuretic peptide'

the last one is ergthro poietin


We will learn this chapter the next day :)


in 18 feb 2013

Anatomy of the thyroid gland:  The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck, below the larynx (voice box). The small, two-inch gland consists of two lobes, one on each side of the windpipe, connected by tissue called the isthmus.

much calcium is in our bones, and how much calcium is in our blood. Calcium is the most important element in our bodies (we use it to control many systems), so calcium is regulated very carefully. Parathyroid glands control the calcium

Adrenal glands

Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you can't live without, including sex hormones and cortisol, which helps you

respond to stress and has many other functions

It's like a Pyramid

Pancreatic gland

The pancreas is a long, tapered gland which lies across and behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas (the right-hand end which is the broadest part of the organ) lies within the curve of the duodenum. This gland secretes digestive juices which break down fats, carbohydrates, proteins and acids; it also secretes bicarbonate, which neutralizes stomach acid as it enters the duodenum. Some cells in the pancreas secrete hormones which regulate the level of glucose in the blood
+ In  Mon 18 Feb 2013Time 0:18 AM  By K.safari  | 

The peripheral nervous system includes sensory receptors, sensory neurons, and motor neurons. Sensory receptors are activated by a stimulus (change in the internal or external environment). The stimulus is converted to an electronic signal and transmitted to a sensory neuron. Sensory neurons connect sensory receptors to the CNS. The CNS processes the signal, and transmits a message back to an effector organ (an organ that responds to a nerve impulse from the CNS) through a motor neuron.

 The PNS has two parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system, or voluntary nervous system, enables humans to react consciously to environmental changes. It includes 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. This system controls movements of skeletal (voluntary) muscles.  Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves emerge from various segments of the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve has a dorsal root and a ventral root. The dorsal root contains afferent (sensory) fibers that transmit information to the spinal cord from the sensory receptors. The ventral root contains efferent (motor) fibers that carry messages from the spinal cord to the effectors. Cell bodies of the efferent fibers reside in the spinal cord gray matter. These roots become nerves that innervate (transmit nerve impulses to) muscles and organs throughout the body

+ In  Sun 10 Feb 2013Time 12:12 PM  By K.safari  | 


Myelin is a substance that forms the myelin sheath associated with nerve cells. This sheath is a layer of phospholipids that increases the conductivity of the electrical messages that are sent through the cell. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis are a result in a lack of this myelin sheath, with the resultant effect being that the conductivity of signals is much slower severely decreasing the effectiveness of the nervous system in sufferers.  In total, there are 43 main nerves that branch of the CNS to the peripheral nervous system (the peripheral system is the nervous system outside the CNS. These are the efferent neurones that carry signals away from the CNS to the peripheral system.

Somatic Nervous System

  These efferent fibres are divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic fibres are responsible for the voluntary movement of our body, i.e. movement that you consciously thought about doing.

The Autonomic Nervous System 

The autonomic nervous system incorporates all the impulses that are done involuntarily, and are usually associated with essential functions such as breathing, heartbeat etc. However this type of system can further be broken down into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems which keep one another in check in a form of negative feedback such as the release of insulin and glucagon in sugar control of the blood.   All of the actions executed by the autonomic nervous system are unconsciously done.  These informational pulses executed in our nervous system allow us to do our daily functions. The processing of this information is done in the CNS, the brain, a highly developed mass of nerve cells. The inner workings of the brain are investigated on the next page

+ In  Sun 10 Feb 2013Time 12:9 PM  By K.safari  | 

The Way Nerve Cells Communicate
The "All-Or-None-Law" applies to nerve cell communication as they use an on / off signal (like an digital signal) so that the message can remain clear and effective from its travel from the CNS to the target cell or vice versa. This is a factor because just like electricity signals, the signal fades out and must be boosted along its journey. But if the message is either 1 or 0 (i.e.) on or off the messages are absolute

Brain Divisions
There are three main components of the brain, namely the brainstem, cerebellum and the forebrain. These are elaborated upon below      The Brainstem - The brainstem is the connection between the rest of the brain and the rest of the central nervous system. This part of the brain was the first to be found in the evolutionary chain, though has developed over time and via evolution to develop into the two other components. It is primarily concerned with life support and basic functions such as movement, thus meaning that more advanced processes are left to the more evolved areas of the brain, as explained below.     The Cerebellum - Consisting of two hemispheres, the cerebellum is primarily concerned with movement and works in partnership with the brainstem area of the brain and focuses on the well being and functionality of muscles. The structure can be found below the occipital lobe and adjacent to the brainstem     The Forebrain - The forebrain lies above the brainstem and cerebellum and is the most advanced in evolutionary terms. Due to its complexity, more info is divulged about this part of the brain below

The Forebrain
The forebrain has many activities that it is responsible for and is divided into many component parts. The below list elaborates on the localised areas of the forebrain and their functions.      The Hypothalamus - A section of the brain found next to the thalamus that is involved in many regulatory functions such as osmoregulation and thermoregulation. The hypothalamus has a degree of control over the pituitary gland, another part of the brain situated next to it, and also controls sleeping patterns, eating and drinking and speech. The hypothalamus is also responsible for the secretion of ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) via its neurosecretory cells     The Cerebrum - The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain, and the part responsible for intelligence and creativity, and also involved in memory. The 'grey matter' of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex, the centre that receives information from the thalamus and all the other lower centres in the brain.     The Cerebral Cortex - Part of the cerebrum, this part of the brain deals with almost all of the higher functions of an intelligent being. It is this part of brain that deals with the masses of information incoming from the periphery nervous system, furiously instructing the brain of what is going on inside its body and the external environment. It is this part that translates our nervous impulses into understandable quantifiable feelings and thoughts. So important is the cerebral cortex that it is sub-divided into 4 parts, explained below      Frontal Lobe - Found at the front of the head, near the temples and forehead, the frontal lobe is essential to many of the advanced functions of an evolved brain. It deals with voluntary muscle movements and deals with more intricate matters such as thought and speech     Parietal Lobe - Situated behind the frontal lobe, this section deals with spatial awareness in the external environment and acts as a receptor area to deal with signals associated with tough.     Temporal Lobe - The temporal lobes are situated in parallel with the ears, they serve the ears by interpreting audio signals received from the auditory canal     Occipital Lobe - This is the smallest of the four lobe components of the cerebrum, and is responsible in interpreting nerve signals from the eye at the back of the brain  The above components of the brain work in tandem in a healthy brain. However, in some cases the brain can be injured in some way, causing brain damage. The next page looks at how brain damage can affect the way we operate

+ In  Sun 10 Feb 2013Time 12:5 PM  By K.safari  |